section two- main page

Lake Stewardship: An Attitude

The term stewardship refers to an understanding that what we do on land and in the water affects the lake. It is a recognition that the lakes are vulnerable and that we must individually and collectively assume responsibility for their care.

What Can an Individual do ?

• Don't let your house intrude upon the lake. Locate new buildings to preserve natural vegetation between the house and the lake. This helps filter sediments and nutrients out of the surface runoff.
• Don't put a road or a wide path down to the lake. Curve any path you do build. Consider a wooden stairway rather than a path or road.
• If you want a sandy beach for swimming, buy a lot with a natural beach rather than dumping fill and sand into the lake.
• Avoid water front structures that require much tree clearing, excavating, or filling.
• Think twice before putting in a lawn. Maintain a wide buffer zone of natural vegetation as possible between the lawn and the water's edge.
• Avoid pesticide, herbicides and fertilizers.
• Don't burn brush or leaves on a slope from which the ashes can wash into the lake.


Source: Yoho Echo by Carol Cunningham

Source: Excerpts from a Citizen's Guide to Lake Protection

Yoho Lake Scout Reserve

The Yoho Lake Scout Reserve 280 ha (692 acres) is located approximately 15 Km South West of Fredericton, off highway 640. Driving from Fredericton, take the Hanwell Road. Just past the swamp at 15km you are at the reserve. At exactly 20 Km from the old Trans Canada highway bypass you will see the Yoho Lake Road on your left. The Yoho Lake Scout Camp's main Lodge is located on the access road just past the Yoho Lake Road. It is about 1 km in.

Forest Trail

This trail starts just north of the Yoho Lake Scout Campsites. Take the trail on the right hand side. It curves down and round to the Yoho Lake road and Yoho Lake. This is one of the longer scout trails and bypasses old haul logging roads and snowmobile trails. The one on the Right can be used to get back to the Scout Campsite. For more information on the Nature Trail and the species and bio-diversity found along the trails please refer to the Yoho Lake Scout Reserve Nature Trails Guide.

Yoho Scout Private "Walking" Trails > Outline Part 1

Yoho Scout Private "Walking" Trails > Outline Part 2


Maple Ridge Trail

This trail starts just north of the Yoho Lake Scout Campsites. Take the trail on the left hand side. It curves down and round past the Interpretation Center and back to the Scout Campsites. For more information on the Nature Trail and the species and bio-diversity found along the trails please refer to the Yoho Lake Scout Reserve Nature Trails Guide.

Yoho Scout Private "Walking" Trails > Outline Part 1

Yoho Scout Private "Walking" Trails > Outline Part 2


Loon Watch Trail South

This trail starts where the Forest Trail meets the Yoho Lake Road. Across the road, the Loon Trail follows the lake shore line and heads north to the Scout Lodge, where it become the Loon Watch Trail West. For more information on the Nature Trail and the species and bio-diversity found along the trails please refer to the Yoho Lake Scout Reserve Nature Trails Guide.

Loon Watch Trail West

This trail starts just south of the Yoho Scout Lodge. Take the trail to the right and follow the shoreline west. Taking a Left instead takes you along the Loon Watch Trail South. For more information on the Nature Trail and the species and bio-diversity found along the trails please refer to the Yoho Lake Scout Reserve Nature Trails Guide.

Yoho Scout Private "Walking" Trails > Outline Part 1

Yoho Scout Private "Walking" Trails > Outline Part 2


Michael Meade Trail

The Michael Meade Trail and Campsites are located on the first left access road off the Yoho Lake Road. There is the Yoho Scout Interpretation centre just before the Scout campsites.

Yoho Scout Private "Walking" Trails > Outline Part 1

Yoho Scout Private "Walking" Trails > Outline Part 2


Bird Watching Challenge

Source: Yoho Echo by Cathy MacLaggan

Can you spot some new species for the Yoho Bird List ? If you do let me know. To get started all you need are binoculars and a bird identification book (e.g. A Field Guide to the Birds East of the Rockies by Roger Tory Perterson).

Partial List of common birds sighted at Yoho Lake:

Partial Bird List
American Bittern Herring Gull Eastern Wood-Pewee Solitary Vireo
* Black-Capped Chickadee * Ring-Billed Gull * Northern Raven White-Eyed Vireo
Double-Crested Cormorant   Common Redpoll Bay-Breasted Warbler
White Winged Crossbill Common NightHawk American Redstart Blackburnian Warbler
* American Crow Broad-Winged Buteo Hawk American Robin Black-Throated Green Warbler
* Brown Creeper * Sharp-Shinned Hawk Spotted Sandpiper Black-Throated Blue Warbler
Ring-Necked Duck Great-Blue Heron Yellow-Bellied Sapsucker Chestnut-Sided Warbler
Dovekie Ruby-Throated Hummingbird Spotted Scaup  
Mourning Dove * Blue Jay * Pine Sisken Black and White Warbler
Black Duck * Grey Jay Common Snipe Canada Warbler
Wood Duck * Northern Junco Song Sparrow Cape May Warbler
Bald Eagle * Slate-Coloured Junco White-Crowned Sparrow Magnolia Warbler
* Purple Finch American Kestrel White-Throated Sparrow Nashville Warbler
* American Goldfinch Eastern Kingbird   Northern Parula Warbler
Northern Flicker Belted Kingfisher * European Starling Yellow Warbler
Alder Flycatcher * Golden-Crowned Kinglet Barn Swallow Yellow-Rumped Warbler
Great-Crested Flycatcher Common Loon Tree Swallow Northern Waterthrush
Least Flycatcher Purple Martin Scarlet Tanager American Woodcock
Olive-Sided Flycatcher American Merganser Common Tern * Downy Woodpecker
Canada Goose Hooded Merganser Hermit Thrush * Hairy Woodpecker
Common Grackle Red-Breasted Merganser Swainson's Thrush * Pileated Woodpecker
Horned Grebe * Red-Breasted Nuthatch Wood Thrush Cedar Waxwing
* Evening Grosbeak White-Breasted Nuthatch Veery Winter Wren
Rose-Breasted Grosbeak Osprey Red-Eyed Vireo Common Yellowthroat
* Ruffed Grouse Ovenbird Philadelphia Vireo  
Greater Black-Backed Gull Great Horned Owl Blue-headed Vireo  

Note: Year-round residents are noted with a *, the other birds are found here during the summer months while nesting, but migrate to the warmer climates in the winter.

Loon Calls

Loons nest from early May to mid July. During this time, nesting and rearing of the young can be unsuccessful if nests are washed away by waves (e.g. from boats, Seadoo's) or if the loons are disturbed. The chicks are particularly vulnerable until they learn to dive and avoid "trouble". We can help ensure the loons remain on the lake by leaving their nesting areas undisturbed, especially during the early weeks of summer.

Summer Hummers

Ruby Throated humming birds arrive in New Brunswick between May 18 to May 21. They usually leave by the third week of September. Feeders should be placed in a sunny location. Don't worry about the birds staying too late in the season due to feeders - the birds urge to migrate will win every time. For feeder nectar, start with 1/4 cup of white sugar to 1 cup of water, and increase the amount of nectar as hummer activity increases. The solution should be boiled, then cooled before filling the feeder. An extra batch can be kept in the fridge for a short time. It is important to keep the feeder clean.

Did you know that the ruby throated humming birds have been known to migrate over 4000 km from Alaska to Central America. A few years ago, I witnessed a hummer flying across the middle of the bay of Fundy - amazing !. In New Brunswick, the Ruby Throated is by far the most common species of humming bird, but in 1933, a Rufous humming bird was discovered visiting Grad Manan. This was the first recorded sighting in New Brunswick. Have fun watching these feisty little devils!


Note: For a larger bird check list please refer to the Yoho Scout Reserve Nature Trails Guide . There are reportedly over 88 distinct species of birds noted in the area.

Mammal Watching Challenge

Source: HinterLandWhosWho

Mammals include humans.

Mammals are warm-blooded animals that have mammary glands and a four-chambered heart. They give birth to live young (as opposed to laying eggs) and are either partially or completely covered in hair.

The teeth of most mammals come in a variety of shapes and sizes designed for chewing many kinds of foods. (Humans, for example, have incisors for cutting, molars for crushing, etc.)

Plus, mammals have larger brains than other vertebrates of equal size, making them most capable learners. Which is why you were able to read that last fascinating fact.

Partial List of Mammals sighted at Yoho Lake:

Mammal List
Little Brown Bat Porcupine
Beaver Marten
Black Bear Moose
Eastern Chipmunk Muskrat
Eastern Coyote Racoon
White-tailed Deer Eastern Gray Squirrel
Red Fox Striped Skunk
Snowshoe Hare (rabbit) Woodchuck

Source: Yoho Scout Reserve Nature Trails Guide .

Reptile Watching Challenge

Source: HinterLandWhosWho

If somebody asks you what the difference between an amphibian and a reptile is, here’s what you can tell them:

Amphibians and reptiles are “ectotherms." This means that they don’t generate their own body heat—instead, they get their body heat from their surroundings. They’re also both vertebrates, meaning they have a spine or backbone. But that’s where the similarities end.

In Canada, reptiles lay their eggs on land, whereas many amphibians lay theirs in water. (Not all amphibians and reptiles lay eggs, though; a large number of species give birth to live young.)

The skin of most amphibians is not waterproof like reptile skin. And although most amphibians have lungs, the majority can also breathe through their skin and the lining of their mouth, whereas most reptiles do not.

And here’s one more bit of information before you explore this section: The word “amphibian” means “two lives,” referring to the change that many frogs and salamanders undergo from tadpole to adult form.

Partial List of Reptiles sighted at Yoho Lake:

Reptile List
Northern Red-bellied Snake  
Maritime Garter Snake  
Eastern Smooth Green Snake  
Northern Ringneck Snake  
Northern Ribbon Snake  

Source: Yoho Scout Reserve Nature Trails Guide .

Amphibian Watching Challenge

Partial List of Amphibians sighted at Yoho Lake:

Amphibian List
Blue-Spotted Salamander American Bullfrog
Yellow-Spotted Salamander Wood Frog
Red -Spotted Newt Wood Turtle
Eastern Redback Salamander Blanding's Turtle
Eastern American Toad Snapping Turtle
Green Frog Eastern Painted Turtle
Pickeral Frog  

Source: Yoho Scout Reserve Nature Trails Guide .

Fish Watching Challenge

Partial List of Fish sighted at Yoho Lake:

Fish List
American Eel Golden Shiner
Banded Killifish Landlocked Salmon
Blacknosed Dace Pearl Dace
Blacknose Shiner PumpkinSeed Sunfish
Brook Trout Redbreasted Sunfish
Brown Trout , Brown Trout Smallmouthed Bass , Smallmouthed Bass
Brown Bullhead White Sucker, White Sucker
Common Shiner Yellow Pirch , Yellow Pirch

Note: the following are species at risk is some provinces.

Banded Killifish Newfoundland population is protected under the federal Species at Risk Act (SARA). More information about SARA, including how it protects individual species, is available in the Species at Risk Act: A Guide.

Commonly Asked Questions and Questions of Interest.


Source: and

Tree Naming Challenge

Partial List of Trees:

Tree List
Acer saccharum Marsh. (sugar maple) Prunus nigra Ait. (Canada plum)
Alnus serrulata (Ait.) Willd. (hazel alder) Prunus serotina Ehrh. (black cherry)
Betula cordifolia Regel (mountain paper birch) Quercus macrocarpa Michx. (bur oak)
Betula glandulosa Michx. (dwarf birch) Salix nigra Marsh. (black willow)
Cephalanthus occidentalis L. (button bush) Taxus canadensis Marsh. (Canada yew)
Cornus alternifolia L.f. (alternate-leaf dogwood) Thuya occidentalis L. (eastern white-cedar)
Fagus grandifolia Ehrh. (American beech) Tilia americana L. (American basswood)
Fraxinus americana L. (white ash) Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr. (eastern hemlock)
Fraxinus nigra Marsh. (black ash) Ulmus americana L. (American elm)
Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh. (red ash) Viburnum edule (Michx.) Raf. (squashberry)
Hamamelis virginiana L. (witch-hazel)  
Juglans cinerea L. (butternut)  
Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch (ironwood)  
Picea rubens Sarg. (red spruce)  
Pinus resinosa Ait. (red pine)  

Source: CFS (Canadian Forest Service).

Shrub Naming Challenge

To be written.

For wild flowering:

Woody Vines

Wild Flower Naming Challenge

To be written.

For more information on wild plants, please visit Ontario Wildflowers website.

Insect Naming Challenge

To be written.

Insects are the most diversified living organisms in forests, but they are nevertheless likely to go unnoticed. More than 35,000 insect species have been recorded to date in Canada, and it is predicted that an equal number of species remain to be identified.

Insects of Eastern Canada 's Forests can be found here.

Diseases of Eastern Canada 's Forests can be found here.

Insects in Aquatic Ecosystems, a Harvey High School (HHS) Student Project.


Edible Wild Plants

Partial List of Edible Wild Plants:

• Be sure of your identification of the wild edible plant BEFORE you eat it! Some wild edible plants have very poisonous look-alikes.
• You may be allergic to some wild edible plants. If you are at all unsure if you will be allergic to a particular plant, eat just a little bit at first.
*YOU* are 100% responsible for properly identifying and properly preparing wild edible plants that you eat.


Edible Wild Plants List
Blueberry (fruit) Wild Carrot (roots)
Garlic Mustard (green plant) Wild Garlic (whole plant)
Gooseberries (fruits) Wild Leeks (whole plant)
Indian Cucumber Root (tubers) Agave Root (root)
Jerusalem Artichoke (tubers) Wild Edible Fungi
Mayapple (fruit)  
Nettles (young whole plant) (& cordage)  
Ostrich Fern (fiddleheads) (young plants)  
Trout Lily (tubers)  

Source: WildwoodSurvival.


Poisonous Wild Plants

Partial List of Poisonous Wild Plants:


Poisonous Wild Plant List
Baneberry, Red (Actaea rubra) - Berries are poisonous.
Hemlock, Bulb-bearing Water (Cicuta bulbifera) - ***DEADLY POISONOUS***
Hemlock, Water (Cicuta maculata) - ***DEADLY POISONOUS***
Ivy, Poison (Toxicodendron radicans) - Poisonous to touch.
Milkweed, Common (Asclepias syriaca) - The milky sap is poisonous.
Sumac, Poison (Toxicodendron vernix) - Poisonous to touch.

Source: OntarioWildflowers


Species at Risk

Source: Environment Canada

Which species are at risk in Canada?

According to the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, there are currently 487 plant and animal species at risk in Canada. The Whooping Crane, the North Atlantic right whale, the monarch and the blue ash are just a few examples. Another 13 species are already extinct.

A good source is the Environment Canada Species at Risk Web site. It addresses some of the following questions:

• How do we know that these species are at risk?

• Why do some species become at risk in Canada?

• What is Canada doing to recover and protect its species?

• What can we do individually to help species at risk?

Everyone can help these species by doing simple and concrete things on a daily basis.

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